Single authorMultiple authorsEditorAuthor unknownCorporate authorBooks with no publication dateSecondary sourcesChapters in a bookForeign titleBook reviewsTranslated workReportsE-booksChapters in an e-bookElectronic encyclopaedias
Journals with volume & part/issue numberJournals with no volume numberJournals: special issues (suppl. issue)Journal articles from Internet sources or databasesReference to more than 1 publication by same author in the same yearNewspapersOnline newspapersPapers in conference proceedings
Internet sources with author/sInternet sources without author/sPersonal communicationBlogs (weblog) / WikisSocial networking sitesComputer programs
Presentations, posters, unpublished policy documentsLecture notes and study guidesCartographic material / mapsLecture notes on a Learning Management Software (LMS) PlatformMeeting minutesTheses and DissertationsTheses and dissertations from an Institutional Repository
Commissions with a chairpersonCommissions without a chairpersonCouncils (as issuing bodies)Government departments (as issuing bodies)Government gazettesGovernment gazettes (electronic format)Green papersGreen papers (electronic format)White papersWhite papers (electronic format)Laws or ActsLaws or Acts (electronic format)Law casesTax casesPatentsStandards
ImagesOnline imagesArt works (photographs, paintings)TV programme / broadcastFilm / Video recordingsOnline video (YouTube, Vimeo)Live performances
This is the "Home" page of the "Referencing Guide" guide.
Alternate Page for Screenreader Users
Skip to Page Navigation
Skip to Page Content

Referencing Guide  

Harvard Referencing style
Last Updated: Nov 25, 2013 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Home Print Page


The Durban University of Technology (DUT) aims to promote academic integrity and honesty. Referencing ensures academic integrity and prevents plagiarism. As a student it is important to acknowledge the work of an author and the most accepted way is to use a referencing system.
This guide outlines the Harvard Referencing system which most faculties at the university expect students to use. While there are variations on the “Harvard” system, this guide is compiled to suit the needs of both DUT staff and students. The guide will assist in proper referencing techniques when using the various reference sources. It shows you how to insert references in the text of your work (in-text reference) and how to compile a reference list or bibliography. This guide may be used in the absence of a departmental referencing guide. Consult a Subject Librarian for more information on referencing.

What is referencing?
Referencing is a method of acknowledging the sources of ideas, thoughts, opinions and information that have been used to compile assignments, projects, theses and dissertations.

Why use a referencing system?
It is good academic practice and is important for academic writing because:

  • it facilitates the tracing of the original source or verification of quotations
  • it shows the breadth and depth of the literature you have read or consulted
  • plagiarism is avoided by correctly referencing the various sources of information.

Plagiarism is the theft of a person's ideas or writing. It occurs when work is submitted without the acknowledgement of the original source. Plagiarism is an academic and legal offence.

The University has recently introduced a plagiarism software called Turnitin. Turnitin is a software program used as an originality checker to detect plagiarism and DUT subscribes to it.

EndNote is a bibliographic management package available to registered DUT staff and students. EndNote is used to store and organise references, to search online bibliographic databases, retrieve full text articles and to create bibliographies. Detailed information on how to download and use EndNote is available on the DUT Library website


Tips for referencing

Ensure that what is cited within your in-text reference has a corresponding record in your reference list and what is in your reference list has a corresponding record in your in-text reference.

  • Check spelling and punctuation carefully.
  • Be consistent in your style of referencing especially in the use of punctuation and spacing.
  • Use the Internet with discretion and always state the date on which the site was accessed.
  • In the reference list, the title is usually in italics. If you are handwriting your reference list you may underline the title instead.
  • Use author initial/s rather than full names and if an author has more than one initial, please indicate all initials.
  • In this guide, the use of ellipsis (…) indicates that words have been omitted from a quotation or that the sentence continues.

There are two key aspects to referencing:
1. In-text referencing: This refers to citing references within the body or text of your work. For the in-text reference, you need the following information:

  • Author’s surname
  • Year of publication
  • Page number (if available)

2. The reference list: This is an alphabetical list arranged by author’s surname at the end of the assignment, project, thesis or dissertation which contains full details of the sources cited.


  • Author  
  • Bibliography  
  • Citation  
  • Citing  
  • Copyright  
  • Corporate author  
  • Direct quotation  
  • Footnotes  
  • In-text referencing  
  • Journal, serials or periodicals  
  • Online database  
  • Paraphrasing  
  • Published source  
  • Reference list  
  • Source  
  • Summarising  
  • Unpublished source  

Loading  Loading...